background image
Note: This Treaty may be impacted by the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent BEPS (MLI). MLI impact on Tax Treaties is available with the Orbitax International Tax Research & Compliance Expert.

ARTICLE 25

Exchange of Information

(1) The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for the carrying out of the provisions of this Agreement or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by this Agreement insofar as the taxation thereunder is in accordance with this Agreement. Any information so exchanged shall be treated as secret and shall not be disclosed to any persons or authorities, including courts, other than those concerned with the assessment, collection, enforcement or prosecution in respect of taxes which are the subject of the Agreement.

(2) In no case shall the provisions of paragraph (1) be construed so as to impose on one of the Contracting States the obligations:

  • (a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws or the administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
  • (b) to supply particulars which are not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State; and
  • (c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).