(1) Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
(2) However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed:
- (a) 5% of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company (other than a partnership) which holds directly at least 20% of the capital of the company paying the dividends;
- (b) 15% of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases.
The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall by mutual agreement settle the mode of application of this limitation.
This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.
(3) The term "dividends" as used in this Article means income from shares, "jouissance" shares or "jouissance" rights, mining shares, founders' shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident and in the case of Luxembourg the investor's share of the profit in a commercial, industrial, mining or craft undertaking, paid proportionally to the profits, as well as interest and payments on bonds, where, over and above the fixed rate of interest, a right of assignment is granted for supplementary interest varying according to the amount of distributed profit.
(4) The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on an industrial or commercial activity in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident through a permanent establishment situated therein or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14 of this Convention, as the case may be, shall apply.
(5) Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except in so far as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or in so far as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on the company's undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.
(6) If an enterprise which is a resident of a Contracting Stare, has a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State, the profits taxable under paragraph (1) of Article 7 shall be subject to an additional tax in that other Stare, in accordance with its law, but the additional tax may not exceed 5% of the amount of such profits.
(7) No relief shall be available under this Article if it was the main purpose or one of the main purposes of any person concerned with the creation or assignment of the shares or other rights in respect of which the dividends are paid to take advantage of this Article by means of that creation or assignment.