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Note: This Treaty may be impacted by the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent BEPS (MLI). MLI impact on Tax Treaties is available with the Orbitax International Tax Research & Compliance Expert.


Exchange of Information

(1) The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary to prevent tax evasion and to carry out the provisions of this Convention or the domestic laws of the Contracting States related to taxes covered by this Convention insofar as the taxation there under is not contrary to the Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as confidential in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by this Convention. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.

(2) In no case shall the provisions of paragraph (1) be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

  • (a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practices of either Contracting State;
  • (b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the law or in the normal course of the administration of either Contracting State;
  • (c) to supply information that would disclose any trade, industrial, or professional secret or trade process or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy.