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Note: This Treaty may be impacted by the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent BEPS (MLI). MLI impact on Tax Treaties is available with the Orbitax International Tax Research & Compliance Expert.

ARTICLE 28

Entitlement to Benefits

(1) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Convention, a benefit under this Convention shall not be granted in respect of an item of income or capital if it is reasonable to conclude, having regard to all relevant facts and circumstances, that obtaining that benefit was one of the principal purposes of any arrangement or transaction that resulted directly or indirectly in that benefit, unless it is established that granting that benefit in these circumstances would be in accordance with the object and purpose of the relevant provisions of this Convention. Before a resident of a Contracting State is denied such benefits in the other Contracting State by reason of the preceding sentence, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall consult with each other.

(2) Where a benefit under this Convention is denied to a person under provisions under paragraph (1), the competent authority of the Contracting State that would otherwise have granted this benefit shall nevertheless treat that person as being entitled to this benefit, or to different benefits with respect to a specific item of income or capital, if such competent authority, upon request from that person and after consideration of the relevant facts and circumstances, determines that such benefits would have been granted to that person in the absence of the transaction or arrangement. The competent authority of the Contracting State to which the request has been made will consult with the competent authority of the other State before rejecting the request made under this paragraph by a resident of that other State.