(1) This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States, except as otherwise provided in the Convention.
(2) The Convention shall not restrict in any manner any exclusion, exemption, deduction, credit, or other allowance now or hereafter accorded:
- (a) by the laws of either Contracting State; or
- (b) by any other agreement between the Contracting States.
(3) A Contracting State may tax its residents (as determined under Article 4 (Resident)) and its citizens, including former citizens, according to the laws of that State as if the Convention had not come into effect.
(4) The provisions of paragraph (3) shall not affect:
- (a) the benefits conferred by a Contracting State under paragraph (2) of Article 9 (Associated Enterprises), under paragraphs (1)(b) and (4) of Article 19 (Pensions, Annuities, Alimony, and Child Support), and under Articles 24 (Relief From Double Taxation), 25 (Non-discrimination) and 26 (Mutual Agreement Procedure); and
- (b) the benefits conferred by a Contracting State under Articles 20 (Government Service), 21 (Students, Trainees, Teachers and Researchers) and 28 (Diplomatic Agents and Consular Officers), upon individual who are neither citizens of, nor lawful permanent residents in, that State.