(1) For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which an enterprise of a Contracting State wholly or partly carries on the business in the other Contracting State.
(2) The term "permanent establishment" includes especially:
- (a) a place of management;
- (b) a branch;
- (c) an office;
- (d) a factory;
- (e) a shop;
- (f) a workshop;
- (g) a farm or any plantation; and
- (h) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of exploration, exploitation or extraction of natural resources.
(3) A building site, a construction, assembly or installation project or supervisory activities in connection therewith constitutes a permanent establishment but only where such site, project or activities continue for a period of more than 12 months.
(4) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term "permanent establishment" shall be deemed not to include:
- (a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage or display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
- (b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage or display or delivery;
- (c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
- (d) the sale of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise displayed in the frame of an occasional temporary fair or exhibition where the goods or merchandise are sold no later than two months after the closing of the said fair or exhibition;
- (e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or of collecting information, for the enterprise;
- (f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the purpose of advertising, for the supply of information, for scientific research, any other activity of preparatory or auxiliary character;
- (g) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in sub-paragraphs (a) to (g) provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.
(5) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) where a person-other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph (6) applies-is acting in a Contracting State on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises in a Contracting States an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise unless the activities of such a person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph (4) which, if exercised through a fixed place of business would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.
(6) An enterprise of a Contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, where such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.
However, when the activities of such an agent are devoted wholly or almost wholly on behalf of that enterprise, he shall not be considered an agent of an independent status if the transactions between the agent and the enterprise were not made under arm's length conditions.
(7) The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting States, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not by itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.