(1) The existing taxes to which this Convention shall apply are:
- (a) in the United States, the Federal income taxes imposed by the Internal Revenue Code (but excluding the accumulated earnings tax, the personal holding company tax, and social security taxes), and the excise taxes imposed on insurance premiums paid to foreign insurers and with respect to private foundations (hereinafter referred to as "United States tax"); provided, however, the Convention shall apply to the excise taxes imposed on insurance premiums paid to foreign insurers only to the extent that the risks covered by such premiums are not reinsured with a person not entitled to exemption from such taxes under this or any other Convention which applies to these taxes; and
- (b) in India:
- (i) the income tax including any surcharge thereon, but excluding income tax on undistributed income of companies, imposed under the Income-tax Act; and
- (ii) the surtax;
- (hereinafter referred to as "Indian tax").
Taxes referred to in (a) and (b) above shall not include any amount payable in respect of any default or omission in relation to the above taxes or which represent a penalty imposed relating to those taxes.
(2) The Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed after the date of signature of the Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws and of any official published material concerning the application of the Convention.