Limitation on Benefits
(1) A person (other than an individual) which is a resident of a Contracting State and derives income from the other Contracting State shall be entitled under this Convention to relief from taxation in that other Contracting State only if:
- (a) more than 50 percent of the beneficial interest in such person (or in the case of a company, more than 50 percent of the number of shares of each class of the company's shares) is owned, directly or indirectly, by one or more individual residents of one of the Contracting States, one of the Contracting States or its political subdivisions or local authorities, or other individuals subject to tax in either Contracting State or their worldwide incomes, or citizens of the United States; and
- (b) the income of such person is not used in substantial part, directly or indirectly, to meet liabilities (including liabilities for interest or royalties) to persons who are not residents of one of the Contracting States, one of the Contracting States or its political subdivisions or local authorities, or citizens of the United States.
(2) The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply if the income derived from the other Contracting State is derived in connection with, or is incidental to, the active conduct by such person of a trade or business in the first-mentioned State (other than the business of making or managing investments, unless these activities are banking or insurance activities carried on by a bank or insurance company).
(3) The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply if the person deriving the income is a company which is a resident of a Contracting State in whose principal class of shares there is substantial and regular trading on a recognized stock exchange. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "recognized stock exchange" means:
- (a) in the case of the United States, the NASDAQ System owned by the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. and any stock exchange registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission as a national securities exchange for purposes of the Securities Act of 1934;
- (b) in the case of India, any stock exchange which is recognized by the Central Government under the Securities Contracts Regulation Act, 1956; and
- (c) any other stock exchange agreed upon by the competent authorities of the Contracting States.
- (4) A person that is not entitled to the benefits of this Convention pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this Article may, nevertheless, be granted the benefits of the Convention if the competent authority of the State in which the income in question arises so determines.