(1) This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States, except as otherwise provided in the Convention.
(2) The Convention shall not restrict in any manner any exclusion, exemption, deduction, credit, or other allowance now or here after accorded:
- (a) by the laws of either Contracting State; or
- (b) by any other agreement between the Contracting States; or
(3) Notwithstanding any provision of the Convention except paragraph 4, a Contracting State may tax its residents (as determined under Article 4 (Residence)), and by reason of citizenship may tax its citizens, as if the Convention had not come into effect. For this purpose, the term "citizen" shall include a former citizen whose loss of citizenship had as one of its principal purposes the avoidance of tax, but only for a period of 10 years following such loss.
(4) The provisions of paragraph 3 shall not affect:
- (a) the benefits conferred by a Contracting State under paragraph 2 of Article 9 (Associated Enterprises), under paragraphs 2 and 6 of Article 20 (Private Pensions, Annuities, Alimony, and Child Support), and under Articles 25 (Relief from Double Taxation), 26 (Non-discrimination), and 27 (Mutual Agreement Procedure); and
- (b) the benefits conferred by a Contracting State under Articles 19 (Remuneration and Pensions in Respect of Government Service), 21 (Payments Received by Students and Apprentices), 22 (Payments Received by Professors, Teachers and Research Scholars) and 29 (Diplomatic Agents and Consul Officers), upon individuals who are neither citizens of, nor have immigrant status in, that State.