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Note: This Treaty may be impacted by the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent BEPS (MLI). MLI impact on Tax Treaties is available with the Orbitax International Tax Research & Compliance Expert.

ARTICLE 28

Exchange of Information

(1) The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information (including documents or certified copies of the documents) as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by the Agreement insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Agreement. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1.

(2) In no case shall the provisions of paragraph (1) be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

  • (a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
  • (b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
  • (c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

(3) If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall use its information gathering measures to obtain the requested information, even though that other State may not need such information for its own tax purposes. The obligation contained in the preceding sentence is subject to the limitations of paragraph (2) but in no case shall such limitations be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because it has no domestic interest in such information.

(4) In no case shall the provisions of paragraph (2) be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because the information is held by a bank, other financial institution, nominee or person acting in an agency or a fiduciary capacity or because it relates to ownership interests in a person.