Exchange of Information
(1) The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information (including documents) as it is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by this Agreement, insofar as the taxation there under is not contrary to this Agreement, in particular for the prevention of fraud or evasion of such taxes. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that Contracting State. However, if the information is originally regarded as secret in the transmitting State, it shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including Courts and administrative bodies) involved in the assessment or collection of the enforcement or prosecution in respect of or the determination of objections and appeals in relation to the taxes which are the subject of this Agreement. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes but may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions. The competent authorities shall, through consultation, develop appropriate conditions, methods and techniques concerning the matters in respect of which such exchange of information shall be made, including, where appropriate, exchange of information regarding tax avoidance.
(2) The exchange of information or documents shall be either on a routine basis or on request with reference to particular cases or both. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall agree from time to time on the list of the information or documents which shall be furnished on a routine basis.
(3) In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:
- (a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws or administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
- (b) to supply information or documents which are not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
- (c) to supply information or documents which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy.