(1) For the purposes of this Convention, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.
(2) The term "permanent establishment" includes especially:
- (a) a place of management;
- (b) a branch;
- (c) an office;
- (d) a factory;
- (e) a workshop; and
- (f) a mine, oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources.
(3) A building site or construction or installation project constitutes a permanent establishment only if it lasts more than twelve-months.
(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (1), (2) and (3), an enterprise of a Contracting State which carries on activities in the territorial sea, and any area beyond the territorial sea within which the other Contracting State, in accordance with international law, exercises jurisdiction or sovereign rights (offshore activities), shall be deemed to carry on, in respect of those activities except as regards paragraph (2) of Article 14, business in that other State through a permanent establishment situated therein, unless the activities in question are carried on in the other State for a period or periods of less than in the aggregate 30 days in any twelve-month period.
(5) For the purposes of paragraph (4) of this Article, offshore activities shall be deemed not to include:
- (a) one or any combination of the activities mentioned in paragraph (7);
- (b) towing or anchor handling by ships primarily designed for that purpose and any other activities performed by such ships;
- (c) the transport of supplies or personnel by ships or aircraft in international traffic.
(6) For the purposes of determining the duration of the offshore activities under paragraph (4) in connection with paragraph (5), where an enterprise carrying on offshore activities in the other Contracting State is associated with another enterprise and that other enterprise continues, as part of the same project, the same offshore activities that are or were being carried on by the first-mentioned enterprise, and the aforementioned activities carried on by both enterprises-when added together-constitute a period of at least 30 days, each enterprise shall be deemed to carry on its activities for a period of at least 30 days in any twelve-month period. An enterprise shall be regarded as associated with another enterprise if one enterprise holds directly or indirectly at least one third of the capital of the other enterprise or if a person holds directly or indirectly at least one third of the capital of both enterprises.
*(7) Irrespective of the above provisions of this Article, the following cases are not deemed to be encompassed by the term “permanent establishment”:
- (a) the use of facilities exclusively for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the company;
- (b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise, belonging to an enterprise, exclusively for the purpose of storage, display or supply;
- (c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to an enterprise, exclusively for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
- (d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information for the enterprise;
- (e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity;
- (f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on any combination of activities mentioned in sub-paragraphs (a) to (e) provided that this activity or in the case of letter (f), that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from such combination of activities is of a preparatory or auxiliary nature.
(8) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (1), (2) and (4), where a person-other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph (9) applies-is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts on behalf of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph (7) which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.
(9) An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.
(10) The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.