(1) Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but the tax so charged shall not exceed:
- (a) 10 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the recipient is a company (excluding partnerships) which owns directly at least 10 per cent of the capital of the company paying the dividends;
- (b) in all other cases, 15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends, if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the dividends.
This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.
(2) The term "dividends" as used in this Article means
- (a) dividends on shares including income from shares, "jouissance" shares or "puissance" rights, mining shares, founders' shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, and
- (b) other income which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident, and, for the purpose of taxation in the Federal Republic of Germany, income derived by a sleeping partner ("stiller Gesellschafter") from his participation as such and distributions on certificates of an investment fund or investment trust.
(3) The provisions of paragraph (1) shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
(4) Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on the company's undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.