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Note: This Treaty may be impacted by the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent BEPS (MLI). MLI impact on Tax Treaties is available with the Orbitax International Tax Research & Compliance Expert.



(1) The competent authorities of the territories will exchange such information as is foreseeably relevant for carrying out the provisions of these provisions or to the administration or enforcement of the domestic laws concerning taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the territories, or of their political subdivisions or local authorities, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the provisions. The exchange of information is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2.

(2) Any information received under paragraph (1) by a territory will be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that territory and will be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to the taxes referred to in paragraph (1). Such persons or authorities will use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions. Notwithstanding the foregoing, information received by a territory may be used for other purposes when such information may be used for such other purposes under the laws of both territories and the competent authority of the supplying territory authorizes such use.

(3) In no case will the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) be construed so as to impose on a territory the obligation:

  • (a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other territory;
  • (b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other territory;
  • (c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

(4) If information is requested by a territory in accordance with this Article, the other territory will use its information gathering measures to obtain the requested information, even though that other territory may not need such information for its own tax purposes. The obligation contained in the preceding sentence is subject to the limitations of paragraph (3) but in no case will such limitations be construed to permit a territory to decline to supply information solely because it has no domestic interest in such information.

(5) In no case will the provisions of paragraph (3) be construed to permit a territory to decline to supply information solely because the information is held by a bank, other financial institution, nominee or person acting in an agency or a fiduciary capacity or because it relates to ownership interests in a person.