Exchange of Information
(1) The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by the Convention insofar as the taxation there under is not contrary to the Convention.
Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities involved in the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or criminal prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by the Convention. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They shall disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.
(2) In no case shall the provisions of paragraph (1) be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:
- (a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practices of that or the other Contracting State;
- (b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of its administration or those of the other Contracting State;
- (c) to supply information which would disclose any business, industrial, professional or commercial secret or trade process or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).