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INTRODUCTION

Finland is a country located in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland. Neighboring countries include Sweden, Russia, Norway, and Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.

Finland has a highly industrialized, free-market economy. Key industries include services, refining, manufacturing of electronics, machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and forestry. Finland is open to foreign investment, but investment is generally not incentivized tax-wise. It is a member of the European Union.

Currency is Euro (EUR)

Abbreviations:

APA Advance Pricing Agreement
BEPS Base Erosion and Profit Shifting
CFC Controlled Foreign Company
CUP Comparable Uncontrolled Price
DTA Double Tax Agreement
EBITDA Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization
EEA European Economic Area
EU European Union
EUR Euro
OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
PE Permanent Establishment
R&D Research and Development
TP Transfer Pricing
VAT Value Added Tax
WHT Withholding Tax