News Share

The Tax Hub

Daily Tax Newsletter

Australia-United States-Cayman Islands

5 April 2019

Responsive image

Australian Full Federal Court Holds Foreign Limited Partnership Liable to Tax; Reversing Earlier Decision

On 2 April 2019, the Full Federal Court of Australia issued its judgment concerning the treatment of limited partnerships in the Cayman Islands with U.S. partners. In 2013, the partnerships realized gains on the disposal of shares in an Australian mining company, for which tax assessments were issued. The assessments were appealed, with the primary judge finding that the assessments were excessive because the partnerships were not entities liable to pay tax and the assessments issued to them should be understood as being assessments issued to the partners. Further, the judge found that the gains were entitled to the benefits of 1982 Australia-U.S. tax treaty, which does not grant taxing rights to Australia on gains from the alienation of shares unless the shares derived value wholly or principally (50%) from real property situated in Australia, which the judge accepted was not the case.

In its judgment, the Full Federal Court set aside the order of the primary judge.

In addressing whether corporate limited partnerships may be liable to tax, the Court found that "for the purposes of facilitating the treatment of a corporate limited partnership as a company for income tax purposes, and critically to enable such a partnership to pay franked dividends to its partners, the corporate limited partnership is a "person" upon whom is imposed a liability to pay income tax". With respect to who had been assessed, the Court disagreed with the primary judge that it was the partners that had been assessed.

In addressing whether the benefits of the Australia-U.S. tax treaty may be claimed in respect of its U.S. partners, the Court found that that partnerships could not claim the benefits because they could not be considered U.S. residents for the purpose of the treaty as there was no evidence that the income of either partnership was subject to U.S. tax. The Court also rejected the partnerships position that they could not be denied treaty benefits based on a 2011 ruling of the ATO (TD 2011/25), which includes that the business profits article (Article 7) of Australia's tax treaties apply to Australian sourced business profits of a foreign limited partnership where the partnership is treated as fiscally transparent in a country with which Australia has entered into a tax treaty and the partners in the partnership are residents of that tax treaty country. The application of the ruling was rejected because the ruling itself includes that the profits may not be dealt with under another article of the treaty; in this case Articles 6 (Income from Real Property) and Article 13 (Alienation of Property).

Lastly, the Court found that the primary judge had erred in accepting the so-called netback method of valuation used by the taxpayer, which resulted in the determination that the shares derived less than 50% of their value from Australian real property. Instead, the Court accepted a valuation by a government expert that resulted in the value from property exceeding 50% and, as such, the gain is taxable regardless of the application of the treaty.

Powerful Tax Tools

NEW

FX Rates

Global FX Rates including Tax Year Average FX Rates and Spot Rates for all Reporting Currencies.

NEW

Corporate Tax Rates

Corporate tax rates, surtaxes, and effective tax rates for the current year, as well as historical rates and approved future rates.

NEW

Country Analysis

Detailed tax guidance for companies doing business in over 100 countries, including summaries and snapshots of key tax facts and issues.

NEW

Cross Border Tax Calculator

Calculate total tax costs and benefits of a cross border transaction including withholding tax, participation exemption and foreign tax credit rules.

NEW

Cross Border Tax Rates

Provides Domestic, treaty and EU cross border tax rates for over 5,000 country combinations for 9 different payment streams.

NEW

OECD BEPS Project

Complete overview of the OECD BEPS Project, including daily BEPS news, country adoption of BEPS measures, and an overview of the 15 BEPS Actions.

NEW

Tax Calendar

Customizable calendar tool that tracks corporate income tax, value added tax and transfer pricing obligations by country or entity.

NEW

Tax Forms

English translations of key tax forms for over 80 countries, including tax return forms, treaty benefit forms, withholding tax forms, and more.

NEW

Worldwide Tax Treaties

Repository including thousands of tax treaties (in English), OECD, UN and US Models, relevant EU Directives, Technical Explanations, and more.

NEW

Worldwide Tax Planner

Calculates the worldwide tax cost of what-if scenarios based on legal entity structure, taxable income, and cross border transactions.

NEW

Certified Rates Report

Customizable Certified Rates Report providing updated corporate and withholding tax rates at the end of each month for over 100 countries.

NEW

Withholding Tax Minimizer

Enables quick calculation of tax costs and benefits of cross border transactions considering all possible transaction combinations and optimal routes.

NEW

VAT Rates

Provides value added tax (VAT) rates, goods and services tax (GST) rates and other indirect tax rates for over 100 countries.

NEW

NOL Calculator

Country specific calculator to determine how net operating losses can be utilized in carryback and carryforward years.

NEW

Transfer Pricing Calculator

Calculates TP ratios under various TP methods and calculates the difference between target ratios and actual ratios.

NEW

Individual Income Tax Rates

Individual tax rates for over 100 countries.

Play of the Day

Crosss Border Rates

Provides Domestic, treaty and EU cross border tax rates for over 5,000 country combinations for 9 different payment Streams.

We’re here to help

We’re here to answer any questions you have about the Orbitax products and services.

Send us a message

Who’s behind Orbitax?

We’re committed to providing high value, low cost tax research and management solutions.

Learn More